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02.01.2013

Izdevumi

Žurnāls "Akadēmiskā Dzīve" Nr. 48, 2011/2012  (8 raksti)
 

Atsevišķas publikācijas

Aija Priedīte

Indranisms – ein Eckpfeiler lettischer Identität?
Aktuālas problēmas literatūras zinātnē. Nacionālās  identitātes meklējumi Baltijas literatūrā un kultūrā: stabilais, mainīgais, zaudētais. Rakstu krājums 17. Liepāja 2012.
 
Anotācija: Betrachtet man einige Werke der lettischen Literatur, die das  Thema Landleben behandeln, nicht als esthetisches Kunstwerk, sondern als Informationsquelle zum Landleben und dem Verständnis der ländlichen Bevölkerung über das Landleben und den eigenen Hof, eröffnet sich ein interessantes Bild. In den Romanen dominiert der patriarchale Hofbesitzer, der sein Grund und Boden mehr liebt, als Frau und Kinder und zur Rettung und Vergrößerung seines Landeigentums bereit ist alles zu tun.
Vier der analysierten Werke, stehen für die Geschehnisse im 19. Jahrhundert und zwei für die im 20. Jahrhundert und ein Werk beschreibt die Identitätsprobleme der lettischen Bauern zur Sovjetzeit.
Andrievs Niedra hat in seinem Werk „Liduma Dumos“ (1899,1901) mehrfach die patriarchale Eigentümerrolle und die damit verbundenen Werte im Konflikt mit der jüngeren Generation thematisiert. Auch die Barone sind in diesem Buch nicht vor Konflikten gefeit. Ein paar Jahre später (1904), nutzt Rudolfs Blaumanis diesen Generationskonflikt als Sujet in seinem Drama Indrani. In diesem Werk löst gerade der alte Hofbesitzer von Indrani gleich zu Anfang einen Generationskonflikt aus. Indem er nicht der lettischen ländlichen Tradition folgt und das Eigentum anstatt dem älteren Sohn, seinem jüngeren Sohn überschreiben möchte. Janis Purapuke geht in seiner Erzählung „Savs kaktins, savs sturitis zemes“ (in der Zeit 1898, 1904) sogar so weit, dass  er den Sohn der Hauptperson schwören lässt, den Hof nicht aufzugeben. „Mernieku laiki“(1879) ist ein sehr gutes Beispiel dafür, wie der Wunsch nach dem eigenen Stück Land in den Bauern wächst. Dieses Verlangen nach Land, dem eigenen Besitz, macht die Bauern blind und zugleich leicht manipulierbar, was diese in noch größere Bedrängnis bringt, als sie schon sind.
Harijs Gulbis „Donuleja“ (1983) und Vladimir Kaijaks „Liktena lidumnieki“ (1999-2004) umfasst die Zeit zwischen dem ersten Weltkrieg bis heute. In „Donuleja“ entspricht Peteris Viksna vollkommen den vorher aufgezeigten Eigenschaften: unendliche Liebe zum Land, der Wunsch nach dem eigenen Fleck Erde, um jeden Preis. In „Liktena lidumnieki“ bestimmt Jekabs, der Besitzer des Hofes Narbuli, dass Narbuli nicht aufgeteilt werden darf und dem ältesten Sohn zusteht. Jekabs Ehefrau Katrine hält sich eisern an diese Bestimmung und erst zur Lebensneige besinnt sie sich, das alles Unglück in Narbuli auf  eben diese Bestimmungen des Jekabs zurückzuführen ist, der verlangt, dass der nächste Besitzer von Narbuli, auch ein würdiger und blutsverwandter  Erbe ist.
„Zemes sape“ von Vija Upmale (1983-1984 verfasst und 1989 publiziert) zeigt die Degradierung der Bewohner eines lettischen Hofes waehrend der Kollektivisierung der Sowjetzeit und deren Folgen.
In allen hier genannten literarischen Werken lieben die Hauptpersonen – die Hofbesitzer – ihr Land und Hof mehr als ihre Ehefrau oder Kinder und machen mit dieser übertriebenen Liebe zum Land, dem fast krankhaften Trieb den Hof unverändert zu erhalten, die nächste Generation unglücklich.
Den Begriff „indranisms“ habe ich deshalb gewählt, weil Blaumanis „Indrani“ neben anderen Erzaehlungen ueber das  lettische Landleben, in allen lettischen Schulprogrammen vom Jahre 1921 bis 2004 zur obligatorischen Literatur gehörte. Diese Beschreibungen des Bauernlebens, mit einem tüchtigen, patriarchalen Hofbesitzer und den anderen der Hofhierarchie unterworfenen Hofbewohnern sind durch das obligatorische Literaturprogramm in den Schulen in das Unterbewusstsein der Letten eingebrannt als die richtige lettische Lebensart: Letten sind Bauern, Hofeigentümer, ein Bauernvolk.
Doch die Zeiten ändern sich, und die Letten sind schon lange keine Bauern mehr. Land bedeutet nicht nur Landwirtschaft, sondern Natur im allgemeinen, eine Umgebung außerhalb der Stadt und die Liebe zur Natur. Das festhalten an gesellschaftlichen Mythen  - wir das Bauernvolk – ist irreführend und es sollte an der Zeit sein zu überlegen, wie man diese lettische literare Klassik zu diesem Thema, aktueller aufgearbeitet an die nächsten Generationen weiterreicht.

Rasma Kārkliņa
 
Vai laukos ir pilsoniskā sabiedrība
Identitātes. Kopienas. Diskursi. Bela, B. (sast.), Rīga, LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2012
 
Anotācija: Raksts skaidro lauku iedzīvotāju biedrošanās paradumus, reizē pārlūkojot un precizējot dažādās sociālas zinātnes lietotas pilsoniskās sabiedrības definīcijas. Līdzdalības un pilsoniskās sabiedrības izteiksmes veidi visa pasaulē strauji mainās, ieskaitot Latvijā. Ierastie reprezentatīvo aptauju jautājumi šai attīstībai nav sekojuši līdzi, tā rezultātā pilsoniskā sabiedrība mēdz būt definēta pārāk šauri. Balstoties uz lauku darbu un dziļajām intervijām, autore izveido plašāku pilsoniskās sabiedrības izteiksmju klāstu, kas papildus klasiskām formālām organizācijām ietver neformālus grupējumus, kā arī „partnerības” un citus jaunus, ļoti formalizētus sadarbības veidojumus ar valsts iestādēm.
 
New Forms of Democracy in Latvia
Baltic Journal of European Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, December 2012
 
Abstract: Based on in-depth research, this paper focuses on new forms of self-governance and democratic participation in contemporary Latvia. It finds that the theoretical notions of deliberative democracy can be tested by examining the practices of how social groups participate in policy decisions on various levels of government. Under the sponsorship of the European Union and other external supporters, Latvia has developed formal mechanisms of popular participation in governance decisions. This paper analyzes how this works in theory and in practice. On the municipal level nongovernmental groups participate in deliberations about development strategies and discussions about how specific developmental projects might affect their environment. Local NGOs form one of three partners in formalized “partnerships” with local businesses and municipal councils. This participatory involvement suggests that one can speak of a nascent “partnership democracy” in Latvia, and possibly other EU influenced post-communist states. In Latvia’s case, the recent tendency towards the involvement of „social partners” and the forming of partnerships and consultative councils in ministries, municipal councils, and other institutions, fits this category rather well.
 
Informal and Formal Civil Society: Latvia's Countryside
Journal of Baltic Studies speciālizdevums. Tiks publicēts 2013. gadā.
 
Anotācija: Scholars use standard ways to measure political participation and civil society in countries worldwide. This paper argues that standard measures have to be adjusted in cases where informal civic participation prevails, such as in Latvia’s countryside. Due to the legacies of the Soviet communist regime, formal civic participation in post-communist countries such as Latvia is underdeveloped, as has been shown by the work of Marc M. Howard and others. Yet, their findings are based on a narrow conception of civil society as consisting of formally organized societal groups engaged in sustained activity. I find that there is more civil society than conventional methods and paradigms allow us to discern and that in the case of societies emerging form repressive regimes, measures of participation need to include a myriad of informal phenomena.
 
Ivars Pavasars
 
Environmentalism in Latvia: Two Realities.
Journal of Baltic Studies. Tiks publicēts 2013. gadā.
 
Abstract: There is evidence of a widespread popular negativism towards 'official environmentalism' in Latvia, in particular with regards to protected nature territories (Natura 2000 network in Europe). From the perspective of natural sciences and governance, this negativism presents challenges with regard to practical environmental management issues, including public participation procedures and public acceptance at large.
Based on deep semi-structured interviews with local officials and residents in a protected nature territory Rāzna National Park, as well as analysis of relevant documents, this article argues that the situation can be best understood as a tension between two parallel realities - one reality being the 'official environmentalism', that is, the perspective of the government, as well as international environmental paradigms, the other reality represented by those living an ordinary rural life. This article grapples with the question of how to bridge or reconcile the two realities.
 
SEA in Latvian rural spatial planning
International association for impact assessment konferences “Energy Future: The Role of Impact Assessment” (Porto, Portugāle, 27. maijs - 1. jūnijs, 2012) rakstu krājums.
 
Abstract: In Latvia, SEA as a conceptually new procedure has been first introduced only in 2004 following the EU directive obligations. Since then SEA has been continuously applied to more than 100 municipalities' spatial planning procedures. Therefore the first experiences can be now retrospectively evaluated. Several scholars have pointed to the problematic nature of SEA quality and efficiency assessment methodology. The current study used an innovative approach to assess the success of SEA performance in rural Latvian municipalities by involving the in-depth interview method. Interview results are then combined with SEA documentation analysis. The in-depth interviews reveal some aspects that would have been hidden by formal documentation and procedure analysis, allowing for insight "from below" to the SEA process. The results indicate that in Latvian rural regions the environmental problems arise rather due to the absence of human activities than due to the overexploitation of natural resources. This is especially contrasting to the developed Western countries (where SEA largely originates) and SEA performed within the overexploitation paradigm leads to descriptive generalisations without locally relevant analyses. The inactivity of rural residents in public consultation process is interpreted as selective ignorance of "top-down" processes as opposed by the presence of widespread informal activities. Nevertheless, public involvement is regarded as crucial by interviewees. Consequently, the contribution of SEA to spatial plans is effectively missing which leads to the question of meaningfulness of the SEA process. Therefore the SEA approach needs to be strongly adjusted to local conditions.
 
Dace Dzenovska
 
Notes on Emptiness and the Importance of Maintaining Life
The Anthropology of East Europe Review, Vol 29, No 2 (2011)
 
Abstract:
In these notes from the field, I will think ethnographically about the ways in which Latvia’s rural inhabitants live what is referred to as the “emptying of the countryside.” I will also consider how and with what effect policy makers, scholars, and intellectuals constitute the phenomenon of rural emptiness as a problem of migration and a problem of demography thought to have dire consequences for the life of the nation. In oscillating between these different registers of living and talking about the emptiness, my aim is to trace what Kathleen Stewart has called “a contact zone for analysis” without definitively enclosing it in particular interpretive frames. In the midst of research, I wish to see whether and how dwelling in this “contact zone” can generate insights that are overlooked by scholarly and political discourses concerned with migration and demography.
Keywords: emptying of the countryside, life, nation, migration, Latvia. 

The Great Departure: Rethinking National(ist) Common Sense
Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2012
 
Abstract: This article argues that, in order to overcome the national(ist) common sense that continues to haunt everyday political and scholarly interpretations of mobility, scholars need not diagnose nationalism with greater vigour, but should rather move beyond facile diagnoses of nationalism. The article calls for a meticulous tracing of relations and practices of emplacement and displacement that ubiquitous national(ist) interpretive frames both co-opt and exceed simultaneously. The argument is elaborated on the basis of an analysis of historical articulations of emplacement and displacement in Latvian understandings of ‘the good life’. The article pays particular attention to the ways in which the figure of the migrant has emerged historically as an aberration to Latvian understandings of the good life. It also considers how this ethical configuration is being unsettled through massive labour migration to Western Europe—or ‘the Great Departure’.

Agnese Cimdiņa

The Unnoticed Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Latvia’s Rural Economy
Journal of Baltic Studies speciālizdevums. Tiks publicēts 2013. gadā.
 
Abstract: The objective of this article is to challenge prejudices about inflexible and inefficient smallholdings and to argue that entrepreneurship and innovation in smallholdings often go unnoticed.. The article presents a nuanced picture of an adaptable and innovative entrepreneurial activity on a smallholding and   demonstrates that innovation is compatible with tradition. Based on long-term field research on organic and bath-house farms in Latvia in 2010 and 2011 this article argues that the innovative potential of rural small-scale economies is not fully assessed. By taking a bottom-up approach, the author explores how  smallholders live, sustain their livelihoods, plan their daily work, adapt to changing circumstances and development precepts of what they regard as good farming practice and what technological and social models they have developed to take advantage of their environment.
 
The Embeddedness of Rural Life: The Case of Latvia
Humanities and social sciences: Latvia. Tiks publicēts 2013. gadā.
 
Abstract: This article challenges the understanding of good rural life as based on profitable and efficient economic activity. Empirical examples will indicate that economic development guidelines set out to modernise rural areas and enhance an efficient agricultural productivity have to deal with complex relationships embedded in local socio-cultural contexts. The author’s observations of agricultural activities challenge the rational (in terms of economic efficiency), instrumental understanding of farming. The study of small holders’ agro-activities is based on fieldwork in organic farms in the Latvian region of Vidzeme in 2010 and 2011. All together 40 farms were visited, some for shorter, others for longer periods. The cases show that the guidelines and programmes for economic development that pursue modernisation of the country-side and fostering of productivity, as well as the introduction of common EU standards in production are often faced with complex relations embedded in local socio-cultural environment that do not correspond to the development initiatives suggested from above.

Ieva Raubiško

Invisible work in the Latvian countryside
Humanities and Social Sciences: Latvia, 37 lpp. Tiks publicēts 2013. gadā.
 
Abstract
: This article focuses on rural people who “don’t work”. In contrast to the dominating view of these people as drunkards and layabouts, it shows that they are, in fact, working. They perform “invisible work”, that is, engage in activities that sustain their existence. However, these activities that often amount to hard physical labour can’t be measured or evaluated according to the criteria of productive wage labour under the capitalist system of production.
The article demonstrates that within Latvian society three different and at times contradictory conceptions of work exist simultaneously: (1) work as a universal guarantee of status and income; (2) work as the basis for the image of the industrious peasant sanctified by Latvian literature, and (3) work as the productive labour demanded by the free market.
By way of conclusion the articles suggests that the invisible work plays a key role in sustaining life in the countryside.
 
Klāvs Sedlenieks
 
What do Latvian ‘peaceful peasants’ do? Peace system in a rural parish of Latvia
Journal of Baltic Studies speciālizdevums. Tiks publicēts 2013. gadā
 
Kopsavilkums
: Rakstā tiek analizēta Mierpils (nosaukums mainīts) "miera sistēma" t.i., iezīmes, kas uztur uz mieru (definēts kā uzskatu, rīcību un tradīciju kopums, kas veicina dzīvības pastāvēšanu) vērstas darbības pētītajā pagastā. Raksts balstās etnogrāfiskos materiālos, kas iegūti 2010-2012. gadā Latvijā. Tajā tiek demonstrēts, ka pretrunā ar salīdzinoši kritiski paštēlu Mierpilieši par svarīgām uzskata vērtības un rīcības modeļus, kas ir vērsti uz spēju veiksmīgi darboties kopienā. Vērtības, kas veicina hierarhisku sabiedrības uzbūvi un uz konkurenci vērstu darbību nav populāras.
 
Edmunds Trumpa
 
„Karte des lettischen Sprachgebiets” (1881) – pirmā latviešu valodas dialektu karte
Baltu filoloģija XIX (1/2) 2010, 79.-102. lpp. 
 
Summary: Up till now the map of isoglosses by A. Bielenstein published as an appendix in the book „Die Grenzen des lettischen Volkstammes und der lettischen Sprache in der Gegenwart und im 13. Jahrhundert“ in 1892 used to be considered as the first map of Latvian dialects. No boundaries of Latvian dialects are shown in the map, but only the particularities of dialects and their boundaries (35 isoglosses). It is possible that from this time a certain tradition exists in Latvian dialectology: describing the dialectal area to fit also transitional regions. The map „Karte des lettischen Sprachgebiets“ compiled by A. Bielenstein was found in 2010 in Latvian National Library. This map is included in the article „Über die Herkunft der kurländischen Letten“ by Julius Döring („Sitzungs-Berichte der kurländischen Gesellschaft für Literatur und Kunst nebst Veröffentlichungen des kurländischen Provinzial-Museums aus dem Jahre 1880“, Mitau, 1881). Julius Döring is a well-known personality in the history of Latvian art. A. Bielenstein gave permission to Döring to use his dialectal data, because they had common interests at that time studying castle mounds. The dialectal map of 1881 characterizes the situation of 1860. It is possible that this map could be the illustration of A. Bielenstein’s grammar „Die lettische Sprache nach ihren Lauten und Formen“ (1863/1864), with some supplement. There are no isoglosses, but only boundaries of the dialects shown in the map. Further information can be gained from the comparison of the maps from 1881 and 1892 – the edges of dialect areas correspond with particular fragments of isoglosses. It allows one to assume that already in 1881 a large preparatory work had been done by A. Bielenstein for the linguistic section of the monograph published in 1892. 
 
Edmunds Trumpa, Lidija Leikuma
 
Über die bedeutendsten Forschungen in der lettischen Dialektologie (2. Hälfte des 19. Jh. – Beginn des 21. Jh.)
Most important studies in Latvian dialectology (second half of 19th century - beginning of 21st century)
Saksijas Zinātņu akadēmijas žurnāls "Denkströme". Tiks publicēts 2013. gadā.
 
Summary
: There are about 1.33 million people who speak Latvian. The basis of Latvian standard language is the Middle dialect. The first Latvian books are Lutheran catechism issued in 1585 and 1586. Since 1638 one can find fragmentary data on Latvian language dialectal differences in the works by G. Mancelius, J. Langius, J. Lange and J. F. Stender, etc. In 1863–1864 A. Bielenstein published the first scientific grammar of Latvian language Die lettische Sprache, nach ihren Lauten und Formen erklärend und vergleichend dargestellt. Professor A. Schleicher actively co-operated with A. Bielenstein; there is information that A. Schleicher had an idea to write a similar grammar. A. Bielenstein makes a distinction between three Latvian dialects in his grammar. In 1881 he illustrated them on a map, but in 1892 reflected them together with 35 linguistic isoglosses (term "isogloss" offered for the first time). One can find a lot of valuable data on Latvian dialects in a journal Magazin (1828–1936), e.g. in the issue of 1863 A. Bielenstein published the first Latvian dialect research program and B. F. Treu – first description of subdialects. In 1882 Bezzenberger published the first monograph on Latvian subdialects – Lettische Dialect-Studien. Also Latvians themselves began to explore Latvian dialects in co-operation with A. Bezzenberger - a number of subdialect descriptions were published by J. Kauliņš in magazine Beiträge zur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen. Further up till the beginning of the 20th century Latvian dialects are studied very intensively, materials are published in several continued publications: Ethnographic Information on Latvians (Etnogrāfiskas ziņas par latviešiem) (1891–1894), Collection of Articles of Literature department of the Latvian Society of Jelgava (Jelgavas latviešu biedrības Rakstniecības nodaļas rakstu krājums) (1890–1901), Collection of Articles of the Knowledge Commission of the Latvian Society of Riga (Rīgas latviešu biedrības Zinību komisijas rakstu krājums) (1876–1940). At the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th cent. the first professional Latvian linguists – Kārlis Mīlenbahs and Jānis Endzelīns –started their work. They toured a large part of Latvia and published reports. In 1907 Lettische Grammatik = Latweeschu gramatika was published. A major work, started by K. Mīlenbahs and finished by J. Endzelīns and E. Hauzenberga-Šturma, – Lettisch-deutsches Wörterbuch (1923–1932; 1934–1938, 1946) – the most complete Latvian language dictionary, in which about 120 000 words are explained and translated (including a lot of dialect words). In 1922 the most significant work by J. Endzelīns was published – Lettische Grammatik (in 1951 it was translated and supplemented); it reflects the development of Latvian language and its dialects, as well as the history of sounds, forms and constructions. In 1922 Lettisches Lesebuch (1922) was published, which includes rich folklore and subdialect materials from all three dialects. In 1920 a Department of Baltistics was founded in the University of Latvia (1919). Research of dialects is done also in the Society of Philologists (1920), Archives of Latvian Folklore (1924) and Archives of Latvian language (1935). 120 subdialects have been described in the Publications of the Society of Philologists (Filologu biedrības raksti) (1921–1940) and other journals. V. Rūķe prepared a map of phonetic and morphological features of two dialects (1939-1940). In 1933 J. Endzelīns raised an idea about the Atlas of Latvian language dialects. In the period of 1941–1944 even 210 pilot maps were designed under the guidance of V. Rūķe. However the lexical part of the Atlas of Latvian language dialects (Latviešu valodas dialektu atlants) was published only in 1999. Currently the parts of phonetics and morphology are being prepared. "Latvian Dialectology" (1964) by Prof. Marta Rudzīte and 36 maps published in her doctoral thesis can be mentioned as a major post-war research. Students have collected a lot of materials under the guidance of Prof. Rudzīte. Important ethnogenesis issues related with dialects in their works have been reflected by Antons Breidaks, Elga Kagaine etc. There is a tradition in Latvian dialectology to make full description with the texts of one or several subdialects (e.g., K. Ancītis Aknīstes izloksne (1977), Augšzemnieku dialekta teksti. Latgaliskās izloksnes (1983), M. Putniņa Sinoles grāmata (2009) etc.).  There are monographs devoted to certain groups of dialectal lexis (e.g., B. Laumane Smalki lija zelta lietus (2005, naming of natural phenomena), B. Bušmane Piena vārdi (2007, naming of milk products) etc.). Dictionaries of Latvian subdialects, which each represents its own dialect, are of great importance to Latvian linguistics: Ērģemes izloksnes vārdnīca (1977-1983), Kalupes izloksnes vārdnīca (1998), Vainižu izloksnes vārdnīca (2000). There is an intension to prepare a large Latvian Dialect Dictionary – its prospect has already been published (Latviešu izlokšņu vārdnīca: prospekts, 2005). Since 2006 common work is conducted by both Latvian and Lithuanian researchers on the project of the Atlas of the Baltic Languages, which is based mainly on the Latvian Language Dialect Atlas, Atlas of the Lithuanian Language and the lexis survey material of the Atlas of European Languages. In 2009 the prospect of the Atlas of the Baltic Languages (Baltu valodu atlants. Prospekts) was published, including 12 maps. There are such notions as cloud, tree-top, toad, pigeon, lark etc described in it. Today the first volume of the Atlas is being drafted. Many dialectal texts have been recorded in the 21st cent. in Siberia – the speech of Latvian descendants who are still using the language of their ancestors.An important task of future dialect research is to record the changes currently happening in the subdialects. In certain projects (e.g., European Social Fund Project No. 2009/0222/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/087) linguists are trying to check the veracity of the boundary of High Latvian (augšzemnieku) dialect set in the 19th-20th century and what are its shifts.
 
Edmunds Trumpa, Anna Stepiņa 
 
Recenzija par grāmatu Valodas Austrumlatvijā: pētījuma dati un rezultāti (Rēzekne, 2009)
Baltu filoloģija XX (2), 2011, 113.–121. lpp. 
 
Mūsdienās vērojama pētnieku uzmanība latgalistikai, daudz publikāciju veltīts Latgales reģiona etniskās un lingvistiskās identitātes problēmai. Pēdējos gados šī problēma ir guvusi jaunu pavērsienu –tiek virzīts trešās baltu valodas – latgaliešu valodas – jautājums. Recenzijā tiek diskutēts ar izdevuma Valodas Austrumlatvijā: pētījuma dati un rezultāti autoriem, kas ar sociolingvistikas metodēm mēģina pamatot latgaliešu valodas kā atsevišķas valodas klātbūtni.Ir argumenti, kas ļauj piekrist tiem, kas latgalisko runas/ rakstu paveidu vēlās redzēt par pilntiesīgu valodu: valodas statuss sniedz vairāk priekšrocību dzīvotspējas ziņā, latgaliešu rakstu tradīcijas attīstība, latgaliskajai identitātei labvēlīgi sociolingvistisko pētījumu rezultāti. Rakstā minēti arī vairāki pretargumenti: latgaliešu valodas piekritējiem ir vājš lingvistiskais ideju pamatojums, ir ignorēti līdzšinējie pētījumi baltu valodniecības jomā. Arī paši sociolingvistikas pētījumu dati izrauti no laika un vietas konteksta, vietām ir nepilnīgi un maldinoši. Areālās lingvistikas dotumi (latgaliskās izloksnes ir izplatītas aiz vēsturiskās Latgales robežām) izvirza grūti atbildamu jautājumu – kur ir šīs hipotētiskās valodas robežas?Recenzijā izvirzīta hipotēze par mikroidentitāti. Ilgu laiku pastāvējušās administratīvās un draudžu robežas ilgstoši ietekmē iedzīvotāju lokālo pašapziņu – vecās paaudzes iedzīvotāji arvien sevi uzskata par veco pagastu iedzīvotājiem, lai arī jau sen nedzīvo tajos (jo mainījušās pagastu robežas). Viņi ir ar dubulto (mikrolokālo latgalisko un latvisko) identitāti, kas nerunā īstajā latgaliešu (resp. latgaliešu rakstu) valodā. Savukārt jaunās paaudzes pārstāvjiem veco pagastu problēma ir sveša. Migrācijas apstākļos viņu identitātes telpa paplašinājusies. Piesardzīgi var apgalvot, ka mikroidentitātes zušana veicina plašākas reģionālās (Latgales) identitātes pastiprināšanos.